Education Week - January 16, 2013 - (Page 22)

22 EDUCATION WEEK n JANUARY 16, 2013 n www.edweek.org COMMENTARY www.edweek.org/go/commentary Putting Value-Added Evaluation To the (Scientific) Test By R. Barker Bausell V Illustration: iStockphoto/MHJ and Vanessa Solis alue-added teacher evaluation has been extensively criticized and strongly defended, but less frequently examined from a dispassionate scientific perspective. Among the value-added movement’s most fervent advocates is a respected scientific school of thought that believes reliable causal conclusions can be teased out of huge data sets by economists or statisticians using sophisticated statistical models that control for extraneous factors. Another scientific school of thought, especially prevalent in medical research, holds that the most reliable method for arriving at defensible causal conclusions involves conducting randomized controlled trials, or rcts, in which (a) individuals are premeasured on an outcome, (b) randomly assigned to receive different treatments, and (c) measured again to ascertain if changes in the outcome differed based upon the treatments received. The purpose of this brief essay is not to argue the pros and cons of the two approaches, but to frame value-added teacher evaluation from the latter, experimental perspective. For conceptually, what else is an evaluation of perhaps 500 4th grade teachers in a moderate-size urban school district but 500 high-stakes individual experiments? Are not students premeasured, assigned to receive a particular intervention (the teacher), and measured again to see which teachers were the more (or less) efficacious? Granted, a number of struc- tural differences exist between a medical randomized controlled trial and a districtwide valueadded teacher evaluation. Medical trials normally employ only one intervention instead of 500, but the basic logic is the same. Each medical rct is also privy to its own comparison group, while individual teachers share a common one (consisting of the entire district’s average 4th grade results). From a methodological perspective, however, both medical and teacher-evaluation trials are designed to generate causal conclusions: namely, that the intervention was statistically superior to the comparison group, statistically inferior, or just the same. But a degree in statistics shouldn’t be required to recognize that an individual medical experiment is designed to pro- It’s Time for Summer Learning By Gary Huggins T he recent commitment by school leaders in five states to add 300 hours of learning time for students is an important step forward for a public education system that too often is cutting back on the very school hours that our children need to achieve and grow. The project, called the time Collaborative, will bring the expanded hours to nearly 20,000 students in 11 districts in Colorado, Massachusetts, New York, Connecticut, and Tennessee, with support from the Ford Foundation and technical assistance from the National Center on Time & Learning. We urge these states and school districts, along with others around the country, to include in their strategy for these new learning hours the season of greatest educational risk and setback: summer. A century of research confirms what teachers know from experience: Students lose during summer vacation too much of what they learned during the school year. Students typically score lower on standardized tests after the summer break than they did before it. Most students lose two months of mathematical skills every summer, and low-income children lose another two to three months in reading. The many positive efforts in progress to improve teaching, raise standards, and add hours to the school day will be undermined by the well-documented, annual, and cumulative problem of summer-learning loss. The extra body of time summer represents is too full of opportunity for our educational system to let it sit fallow. Districts must seize this time to get both students and teachers ready for the Common Core State Standards, and the higher targets that competition in the global workforce demands. But more than just hours, the summer months offer a unique flexibility that is critical to both educational innovation and to the way students see the experience of school. Summer learning can change the game for students, especially those who are struggling. It should be a time for reimagination and deeper learning, when kids have a chance to reframe their attitudes toward school and connect with teachers and content in an entirely different way, when they have a chance to get comfortable with the expectations of a new grade or school. With extra time and a setting that is stimulating and engaging, students can truly hit the ground running in September. “ A century of research confirms what teachers know from experience: Students lose during summer vacation too much of what they learned during the school year.” While the evidence is solidly on the side of adding learning time during the summer months, budget constraints and old, punitive stereotypes can make it a tough sell. But school leaders who understand how summer affects their academic bottom line have found, as research from the rand Corp. shows, that along with providing an important leg up for students, providing a high-quality summer learning program typically costs less than providing the same weeks of instruction as part of the school year. Summer is a season for discovery, investigation, reading for pleasure, and playing. Kids might not realize it, but these activities describe some of the best ways we learn. “Summer has always been a place for the joy of learning, and it’s also been a place for the joy of teaching,” Lorna Smith, the chief executive officer of the high-quality summer learning program Horizons National, said during a session at the national Summer Changes EverythingTM conference in Pittsburgh this past November. School districts can enhance summer learning by embracing community-based programs and resources, including public libraries and museums, that have so much to engage children in learning and yet are often overlooked as an essential ingredient in the summer learning solution. In places like New York City; Houston; Pittsburgh; Jacksonville, Fla.; and Oakland, Calif., school districts have realized exactly that, and have created robust and interesting summer learning programs that upend draconian notions of summer school. These districts and others like them around the country have prioritized summer as a path to help students improve achievement, with programs that provide both academic rigor and engaging activities—such as studying native bee populations, learning judo, creating websites, or studying the social issues of the dystopian young-adult novel The Hunger Games—intentionally designed to open new pathways to learning important skills. In turn, these innovative instructional approaches piloted in summer are affecting the way teaching and learning happen all year, as was the case last summer in Chicago iStockphoto/jpa1999 http://www.edweek.org http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 16, 2013

Education Week - January 16, 2013
Is Education Facing a ‘Tech Bubble’?
Multiple Gauges Best for Teachers
Model Common-Core Unit Piloted for ELL Teachers
Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Fla. Data Link Suspension To Lower Graduation Rates
Anti-Poverty Program Found To Fall Short In Studies
New Science-Standards Draft Incorporates Feedback
With Common Core in Mind, Schools Turn to E-Rate
Survey Tool Aims for Fresh Eye On Parents
Study Dissects Gender Effects In Math Teaching
Funders and N.C. District Team Up To Run Schools
Blogs of the Week
State of the States
N.Y.’s Cuomo Moves Ahead On K-12 Ideas
Crush of Ed. Laws Awaiting Renewal In Congress
Fiscal Realities Dog States
Policy Brief
R. BARKER BAUSELL: Putting Value-Added Evaluation To the (Scientific) Test
GARY HUGGINS: It’s Time for Summer Learning
JEFF CAMP: Let’s Remove Self-Righteousness From the K-12 Debate
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
MIKE ROSE: Giving Cognition a Bad Name

Education Week - January 16, 2013

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