Education Week - January 8, 2014 - (Page 32)

COMMENTARY On the Yellow School Bus By Peter W. Cookson Jr. M aybe I am an incurable romantic when it comes to a unifying and inclusive vision of public education. I confess I sometimes grow weary of the seem- ingly endless policy debates about issues that seem really important to adults but have little bearing on the lives of children. But just as I am about to throw in the towel, more often than not I pass a big yellow school bus. When Frank Cyr organized a 1939 conference at Teachers College in New York City to establish national standards for school bus construction, he and his colleagues determined that yellow was the most visible color. It didn't take long, however, before yellow became more than a serviceable color: "National School Bus Glossy Yellow" (the official paint choice for school buses in the United States) became our collective symbol of hope and optimism. But that optimism is in jeopardy today. I recently completed a study of five American high schools: an elite private school, an upper-middle-class school, a middle-class school, a working-class school, and a school located in an area of concentrated poverty. While I knew educational and social mo- bility is essentially frozen, I didn't know how thoroughly social class is baked into schools. Where a student goes to school, and with whom, determines what he or she will study, with whom he or she will study, what colleges he or she will attend, and his or her life chances. Even more shocking, where a student goes to high school determines the quantity and quality of the food he or she receives during the school day, his or her emotional and physical safety, his or her ability to find a quiet place to study, and whether he or she has access to clean, sanitary school restrooms. While many factors contribute to how high schools reproduce our class system, four stand out: residential class and race segregation, private schools for the wealthy, the education and credentials of a school's faculty members, and the formation of collective social-class memory. The first three are obvious and apparent. The fourth factor is subtler and was the primary focus of my study. To understand social and educational re- production, we need a social/psychological theory of how class relations are internalized. My hypothesis was that high schools are social and emotional hothouses where students create not only personal memories, but collective experiences which, when internalized, infuse them with the values, dispositions, and beliefs about their most likely social-class destinations. This is accomplished through what I refer to as social-class rites of passage. A rite of passage is a ceremony marking a significant transition in a group or individual's life. I believe high schools structure students' rites of passage through five school characteristics: aesthetics and architecture, authority relations, pedagogy and curriculum, definitions of self, and most likely occupational destinations. These rites of passage are what I call the deep curriculum of high schools. The higher the social-class backgrounds of students, the greater likelihood they will feel confident of their ability to take charge of their lives, and Looking for Equity the more likely they will feel empowered. The deep curriculum is not a soft variable or metaphor; it is real, hard-wired, and relentless. It determines who drops out and who doesn't, who develops the cognitive skills needed for success today, who goes to college, and who graduates from college, and, ultimately, who has a shot at the American dream, and who does not. As I was completing my study, I talked with a teacher who worked at a school in a community of concentrated poverty. He mentioned that the mayor had recently given a speech at the school suggesting his policies were improving public education in the city. The teacher had a slightly ironic smile as he recalled the visit: "It was kind of funny. A few days before the mayor gave his speech, they painted the front of the school-but left the rest of it unpainted. I guess impressions matter in politics. Too bad they didn't finish the job for the kids." History has a way of repeating itself. As legend has it, Grigory Potemkin, a minister of Catherine the Great, created whole villages of fake facades to impress the queen on her visits to war-torn Crimea in 1787. The expression "Potemkin Village" entered into our vocabulary to signify an impressive front created to hide an undesirable fact. Many of today's educational reforms are Potemkin Villages. They look real, but in reality there is very little behind them but smoke and mirrors. Which brings me back to the yellow school bus. There are approximately 480,000 of them on the road, serving 25 million students every day. By law, we stop our cars if we are behind or on the other side of the road when a school bus stops. That's a lot of stops we make every day to ensure our children are safe and educated. We stop not just for our own children, but also for our neighbors' PAGE 23 > PETER W. COOKSON JR. is a principal researcher at the American Institutes for Research, in Washington, where he leads the Equity Project, an educational think tank. Since the 1980s, he has been a college and university professor and administrator, including at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he founded the Center for Educational Outreach and Innovation and TC Innovations. He currently teaches in the sociology department at Georgetown University, and he is the author, most recently, of Class Rules: Exposing Inequality in American High Schools (Teachers College Press, 2013). Jared Boggess | INSIDE | 20 WHY THE U.S. RESULTS ON PISA MATTER 32 | EDUCATION WEEK | January 8, 2014 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary 20 WHY ARNE DUNCAN'S PISA COMMENTS MISS THE MARK 21 LEARNING FROM A TEST 22 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR What can we do to recapture the spirit of community and shared responsibility that is symbolized by the yellow school bus?" " http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 8, 2014

Education Week - January 8, 2014
State Legislators Fire Up Engines
Inspections Piloted for Teacher Prep
Student Views Shifting on Risks Of Marijuana
L.A. School Bridges Home-School Gap
InBloom Sputters as Data Privacy Hits the Spotlight
ontents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Fariña to Lead N.Y.C. Public Schools
Judge Censures District’s Use of ‘Hess Report’
Los Angeles, D.C. Outshine Urban Peers in NAEP Gains
Blogs of the Week
Cloud Computing Expands, Raising Data-Privacy Concerns
Congressional Appropriators Turn To K-12 Spending Details
Rural Districts Win Big in Race To Top Awards
States Split Latest Pot of Early-Learning Aid
Blogs of the Week
ERIC A. HANUSHEK: Why the U.S. Results on PISA Matter
ROBERT WEINTRAUB & DAVID WEINTRAUB: Why Arne Duncan’s PISA Comments Miss the Mark
JACK DALE: Learning From a Test
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
PETER W. COOKSON JR.: Looking for Equity on the Yellow School Bus

Education Week - January 8, 2014

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